Revista THEOMAI   /  THEOMAI   Journal
Estudios sobre Sociedad, Naturaleza y Desarrollo / Society, Nature and Development Studies


número 2 (segundo semestre de 2000)  
number 2 (second semester of 2000)




To Critic the Globalization Concept
Carlos Antonio Aguirre Rojas

  This article proposes a critical reflection about globalization. The question is the relevancy of the concept of globalization as a useful category to understand and then to explain the complex situation of the world capitalism in the last 30 years. This essay criticizes the relevancy of the concept of globalization through a careful revision and considering a long term perspective. Instead I propose a more elaborated analysis of the contemporary crisis of civilization faced by the capitalist world system for the last three decades.


Natural and Social Metabolism in the Early Sociology
Dario Padovan

  This paper examines the different uses of the concept of «social metabolism» in the mechanist and organicist sociology widespread during the late years of nineteenth century and the early years of twentieth.
  Bio-organismic sociological theory used the concepts of «material exchange», «transformation of matter», «metamorphosis» to explain the process of social change of resources between Nature and social body. These concepts are very close to the «social metabolism» one. Really crucial for social metabolism was the concept of equilibrium. Organicism stated that evolution is a permanent process of the adaptation of organism to the environment. Its life is due to the conservation of this equilibrium.
  Bio-Organicistic thinkers argued that in human societies the same thing happens. They can improve only if the adjustment process is incessant and dynamic. If the transformation process stops or becomes too fast, like during a revolution, society dies. Human society, like any organism, adapts to unceased variations of the environment. It harmonizes not only to the natural environmental modifications like climate, food, vegetation, but also to the new conditions produced by psychological and economical activity. These activities, organicists said, create an artificial environment, different but joined with the natural one. In these words we can find an anticipation of the idea of «sustainable development».
  The study of genetic origin of the "social metabolism" concept could help the environmental sociology to find a historical legitimacy in the contest of social sciences.


Unprotected Areas, Protected Areas, and Sustainability Under GreenDevelopment Policies: Which Are the Expected Impacts?
Lucio Muñoz

It can be said that development without protection has much, if not the most, to do with the critical state of the environment today, whose symptoms can hardly be ignored (deforestation, global warming, biodiversity losses, poverty, and so on). Were not because of these symptoms, development without protection could go on forever. This brings environmental concerns to the forefront of current development issues, and makes relevant the need to design environmental policies that can support protection efforts and which can accelerate either the preservation of remaining natural areas or the recovering of non-natural areas.
However, environmental solutions to the above symptoms must be systematic so that they can have some form of logic or predictability or can account for internal and external impacts or can be proactive. Otherwise, we can create a situation where protection in one area/region accelerates environmental degradation in other areas/regions (a situation that later may undermine any gains made in the targeted area/region), but we can not even see it when we are using a non-systematic framework or state of mind. The framework presented below is based on sustainability theory and qualitative comparative techniques, and it is defined in such a way as to allow us to point out what to expect when specific green policies are aimed to a systematic structure where protected area and unprotected area based development is the rule. Then, some specific and general conclusions are presented.


Agricultural teaching and natural ambient in the Pampas Region, 1910-1955
Talía Violeta Gutierrez

Agricultural educational modality ways in the Pampas Region propitiated by the leading group as a means to enable farmers and endeavour them their security in the field, presented itself closely bound to the fluctuations in the cereal agriculture . About 1910, when the horizontal agriculture expansion was meeting its boundaries, there were already settled the basis of agricultural teaching. Its destiny bore several alternatives till 1955 when the end of the plan carried out by the nationalist popular peronist government fixed a disruption in the orientation of the educational system.
The analysis of relationship between society and nature, that was articulated by the specialised schools as well as by the agricultural orientation of the rural school, is the objet of this paper. The relationship may be characterised as an instrumental vision of ambient, closely related to the socio-economic aspects of the agricultural exploitation. That perception in relation to agriculture and cattle raising production of the pampas lasted long, but it was gradually giving place to a closer articulation of the social and natural dynamics. We think that this articulation was evident since the 40’s as a stronger emphasis in the natural conditions adequate to each type of exploitation and in the discussions on subjects referring to agricultural teaching and rural medium.


Roads and Trade as Environmental Change Factors in the Arid Plain of Mendoza (Argentina, XVII and XIX centuries)
María del R. Prieto & y Elena M. Abraham

The aim of the present study is to analyze the role played by the ancient Camino Real (Royal Highway) and by the intense interchange between the Pacific and Atlantic littorals, in the degradation of the ecosystem of the Mendoza Oriental Plains. The work was based on the presumption that the environment had already undergone severe deterioration processes before the second half of 19th century, mainly linked to the action of the permanent transit of wagons and animals in the area.
Historical sources were used to reconstruct the previous natural scenario and to study the impact of the socio-economic factors. Through an interdisciplinary study, the collected information was confronted with the data resulting from the geographic analysis. Particular attention was given to the descriptions of the numerous travelers that journeyed the Buenos Aires-Mendoza-Santiago de Chile road, also to the naturalists of the 18th and 19th centuries that described the zone vegetation. Taking into account the variation between the demand, offer and use pressure relation, periods were established.
The environmental processes that developed between 1780 until 1850 are the most remarkable. As soon as the Camino Real gained significance as a communication way, it became the principal degradation factor, according to the indicators pointed out along of the work: compaction, erosion, invasion by weeds and exotic species, intentional fires, impoverishment of the fauna, deterioration of the vegetation and overgrazing.


The Land Configuration of Quilmes County in the end of the 19th Century and early 20th Century
Cintia Russo

 The relevant dynamics in the land configuration of Quilmes county (Buenos Aires, Argentina) has to do with two particular processes of the modernization: the urbanization and the industrialization. This article develops three main points. First, a description of the region in terms of natural and social environment from a historical approach. Second, an analysis of the changes in the social and economic development, i.e. an explanation of the beginnings of the urbanization and industrialization processes in the region. Thirdly, the case of `Cervecería Quilmes´ (Quilmes brewery) is considered briefly.


Country Clubs and Private Neighbourhoods. Some ideas about their sustainable management. `Manzares´, Pilar, Buenos Aires Province case.
Verónica Paiva

  The article examines the ambiental problems originated by the installation of countries and close suburbs in Manzanares, Pilar, located in the Buenos Province. It presents the diagnostic of the principals subsystems affected, the identity of the main ambiental conflicts, the analysis of the legal and administrative instruments which were adopted till the present for the area regulation and go deep on the urban management problematic matter, dealing with the position and role of the different actors implicated in the urban process of urbanization of the new settlements.


The History of the Family in the European Historiography: some Problems
Franco Ramella

The history of `the family´ is a relatively recent field of study, which has had a great development as from the 1970s having its most important time in the 1980s and the earliers years on the 1990s. The studies of the history of the family have taken several directions but there are two main and contradictory approaches.
The first approach which was widely spread at first states that the family has been a fundamental component of the interelated processes of capitalism, industrialization and the so-called modernization.
The second approach has argued the theoretical basis of the first approach, especially its methodology and over all its evolutionist principles. Thus, this approach opens the discussion on personal relathionships in the study of the society.



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Instrucciones para los autores /Instructions for Authors  
Consejo Editorial/Editorial Board

Theomai: palabra de origen griego que significa ver, mirar, contemplar, observar, pasar revista, comprender, conocer
Theomai is a word of greek origin wich means: to see, to contemplate, to observe, to understand, to know

Revista Theomai es una publicación de la Red de Estudios sobre Sociedad, Naturaleza y Desarrollo
Theomai Journal is published by  Society, Nature and Development Studies Network
Coordinadores/Coordinators: Guido P. Galafassi, Adrián G. Zarrilli

Universidad Nacional de Quilmes